Biological Sciences

Catalog Home

Fisher Science Hall (33), Room 273
Phone: 805.756.2788
Email: biosci@calpoly.edu
https://bio.calpoly.edu

Department Chair: Ken Hillers

Academic Programs

Program name Program type
Biological SciencesBS, MA, MS
Biology Minor
Marine SciencesBS
MicrobiologyBS, Minor

The department offers several undergraduate programs leading to Bachelor of Science degrees in Biological Sciences, Marine Sciences and Microbiology, and minors in Biology and Microbiology. For qualified students, a graduate program is available leading to a Master of Science or a Master of Arts degree. In addition, courses are offered to satisfy biology requirements in academic majors across campus.

The Biological Sciences department teaches courses with the following prefixes: BIO (Biology), BOT (Botany), MCRO (Microbiology), and MSCI (Marine Science).

The department is housed in modern facilities equipped with up-to-date instrumentation. Cal Poly's geographical setting offers unusual opportunities for studying representative plants and animals of both Northern and Southern California. Graduates of the various programs enter fields in teaching; laboratory technology; public health; biotechnology research and manufacturing; wildlife management; consulting; agriculture; industry; and private, state, and national park and forest services. A significant number of graduates enter graduate or professional schools for advanced study of botany, ecology, entomology, microbiology, plant pathology, zoology, marine sciences, veterinary science, cell and molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The department offers courses required for preprofessional training in medicine and paramedical fields.

Students majoring in Biological Sciences, Marine Sciences, or Microbiology may take advantage of opportunities to participate in research projects. Special opportunities are available through the Center for Applications in Biotechnology (CAB) that is developing biological tools to address environmental concerns through collaborative interdisciplinary research and education; the Center for Coastal Marine Science (CCMS) that promotes and facilitates basic and applied studies of coastal marine systems for the purposes of addressing environmental concerns and fostering hands-on learning through discovery and outreach; and the Undergraduate Biotechnology Laboratory (UBL), which is co-funded by Cal Poly and the National Science Foundation to provide undergraduates with hands-on experience with biotechnology. In addition, there are a large number of opportunities to work in the laboratory of individual faculty members in areas such as conservation, genetics and genomics, botany, ecology, endangered species, infectious disease mechanisms, developmental biology, anatomy, and physiology.

The department supports the concept of international education and encourages students to investigate opportunities for overseas study. For further information, see Cal Poly International Center.

Undergraduate Programs

BS Biological Sciences

The degree offers students a broad education in biology from molecules to ecosystems, with an emphasis on hands-on training in the laboratory and the field. Biology majors can gain preprofessional preparation in the biomedical fields, coursework toward a teaching credential, progress toward professional certification, and/or preparation for graduate training in a field of interest. In addition to the core coursework for the biology major, students may choose a concentration in order to gain a deep, focused understanding of a specific subfield within biology, or may follow the general curriculum in biology for broader exposure to a variety of topics. Students are encouraged to consult with a faculty advisor and the College of Science and Mathematics Advising Center to help them learn about their chosen degree program, concentration choices, career options, study skills, and departmental opportunities. Students interested in teaching may choose any concentration and should contact the single subject credential advisor for information about teaching opportunities and recommended coursework. Students may not double major in Biological Science and Microbiology. Students may not double major in Biological Science and Marine Science.

Concentrations

Anatomy and Physiology

Students in this concentration study biological sciences with an emphasis on the structure and function of humans and other animals.  This concentration is ideal for students preparing for careers in the health professions.

Ecology

The study of ecology spans a wide breadth of habitats, from terrestrial to marine, and multiple scales of organization, from microbial interactions to global processes. As such, the ecology concentration allows flexibility for students to design a program to fit their interests and career goals within this broad discipline. The concentration emphasizes collection and analysis of data to better understand the factors that affect the distribution and abundance of organisms. In many contexts, these results are used to identify and solve environmental problems. Graduates may pursue careers in education, ecological consulting, planning or coordination, habitat restoration, or environmental law. A graduate may be academically qualified for professional certification as an Associate Ecologist by the Ecological Society of America.

Molecular and Cellular Biology

Designed for students who are interested in how genes and their products work to create and maintain cells, tissues and organisms.  This concentration augments the diverse biological sciences curriculum with laboratory courses in nucleic acid and protein techniques, along with cell biology, biochemistry, and electives such as bioinformatics, microbial biotechnology, immunology, developmental biology and virology. This concentration is ideal for students interested in biotechnology or biomedical research, and is also an excellent option for students planning future studies in the health professions.

Wildlife and Biodiversity Conservation

The is to prepare students in the skills necessary to participate in the conservation of wildlife, plants, and other wild species and their habitats. Professions in this arena include N.G.O., state and federal resource management agencies, private consulting firms, and research. These professions require a solid foundation in the identification of wild species, the principles of ecology, and the tools, policies and social context of conservation. This area of concentration may help students meet the requirements for professional certification established by off-campus entities such as The Wildlife Society and the Ecological Society of America; students interested in such certification programs should consult with their faculty advisor for specific programmatic guidance.

General Curriculum in Biology

General Curriculum in Biology is not a concentration but can be used to fulfill the unit requirements of a concentration. The General Curriculum provides the greatest flexibility allowing students to take coursework across all areas of biology. This breadth of knowledge across the biological sciences may be especially beneficial for students considering teaching biology at the secondary level. Students who do not declare a concentration will default to the General Curriculum.

Degree Requirements and Curriculum
 

BS Marine Sciences

The degree is an integrative program designed to prepare students for advanced training or professional employment in public or private agencies concerned with marine-related issues. While this degree is based in Biological Sciences, the program includes faculty from other disciplines including chemistry, physics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The degree instills students with critical thinking and analytical skills in areas such as marine organism physiology, conservation, fisheries, oceanographic sampling and data networks. Through the use of experience-based learning including faculty-led research projects, students will develop essential knowledge as well as a solid foundation in community–oriented education in the interdisciplinary field of marine sciences. Students may not double major in Biological Science and Marine Science.

Degree Requirements and Curriculum
 

BS Microbiology

Microbiology is the study of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment as important contributors to nutrient cycling, and many have symbiotic relationships with other organisms. Species of medical importance impact human and animal health as pathogens associated with infectious diseases. Additionally, microorganisms are critical research tools in fields such as molecular biology and genetics, and are used for large-scale production of many foods, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals. Cal Poly is one of the few public universities in California offering a laboratory-intensive Bachelor of Science degree in Microbiology.

In the junior and senior years, majors take specialized courses in medical microbiology, immunology, microbial physiology, genetics, virology, and cell biology. Students also choose elective courses related to student interests and career goals in close consultation with their faculty advisor. Such goals may include graduate school or professional studies with further training through Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CLS) or Public Health Microbiologist certification programs. Graduates may also pursue post-baccalaureate employment in applied areas such as industrial microbiology, food and dairy microbiology, biotechnology, public health, epidemiology, or medical laboratory technology. Students may not double major in Biological Science and Microbiology.

Degree Requirements and Curriculum
 

Biology Minor

The purpose of the minor is to help students from other disciplines acquire increased factual and conceptual knowledge in biology, an increased understanding of scientific methods and techniques used to study biology, and an increased ability to analyze biological topics in the news or in various jobs. Biological issues are important throughout modern life and particularly relevant in many careers, including those in health-related businesses, agriculture, several engineering disciplines, city planning, teaching K-12 students, journalism, political science, psychology, and statistics. Students in more closely related majors such as biochemistry or kinesiology may also be interested in strengthening their biology background. In addition, an enhanced biology background helps students become better educated citizens regarding a variety of controversial issues in modern society (e.g., genetically-modified organisms in agriculture, human cloning, genetic discrimination, the pressures of population growth). The minor is open to any major except Biological Science, Marine Science and Microbiology.

Minor Requirements
 

Biotechnology Minor

For information regarding the Biotechnology Minor, please see College of Science and Mathematics section.

Microbiology Minor

This minor is designed to give students, from majors in which microbiology may be an important component, increased exposure to factual information, concepts, and skills and to provide those students a more complete understanding of the roles of microorganisms as they pertain to their major. Students in the allied health and related fields may expand their breadth of knowledge in microbial diseases, transmission and prevention, and immunologic responses. Students in applied fields of study such as Food and Dairy Sciences and various aspects of agriculture can gain additional information in pertinent topics such as the presence and role of microorganisms in water and wastewater treatment, in recycling of nutrients and soil fertility, in food processing, spoilage, and production, and in disease transmission. The minor is open to any major except Biological Science.

Minor Requirements

Graduate Programs

Master of Arts Degree in Biological Sciences

General Characteristics

This degree offers a broad background in the biological sciences. The program is designed to offer sufficient breadth and depth to strengthen the student's academic understanding and improve competence for:

  1. many types of biological work that require advanced training beyond the bachelor's degree;
  2. careers in industry and/or civil service;
  3. teaching biological sciences at the elementary, secondary, and community college levels.

This degree differs from the MS in Biological Sciences in that a research thesis is not required.

Prerequisites

Admission to this program requires a minimum grade point average of 3.0 in the last 90 quarter units attempted, submission of satisfactory scores on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), and two letters of recommendation from persons knowing your academic potential.

Advancement to candidacy requires a satisfactory background in biology, and completion of 12 units of courses specified in an informal study plan with a minimum grade point average of 3.0. Information pertaining to specific departmental requirements for admission classified or conditionally classified may be obtained from the Director of the Graduate and Research Committee (Graduate Coordinator) of the Biological Sciences Department.

Program of Study

The formal program of study for the degree must include 45 units of committee-approved graduate work, at least 30 units of which must be at the 500 level. A grade point average of 3.0 or better is required from the combination of all courses included in the Formal Study Plan. Coursework must include 32 units within the Biological Sciences Department at Cal Poly. Only 4 units of BIO 575 College Teaching Practicum can be used; a maximum of 3 units of BIO 590 Seminar in Biology can be used in the Formal Study Plan. The culminating experience is a comprehensive written exam covering three areas of biology.

Degree Requirements and Curriculum
 

Master of Science Degree in Biological Sciences

General Characteristics

This degree offers a broad background in the biological sciences. The program is designed to offer sufficient breadth and depth to strengthen the student's academic understanding and improve competence for:

  1. many types of biological work that require advanced training beyond the bachelor's degree;
  2. careers in industry and/or civil service;
  3. teaching biological sciences at the elementary, secondary, and community college levels;
  4. independent research in the field of specialization;
  5. continued graduate work at other institutions.

Prerequisites

Admission to this program requires a minimum grade point average of 3.0 in the last 90 quarter units attempted, submission of satisfactory Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores, and two letters of recommendation from persons knowing your academic potential.

Information pertaining to specific departmental requirements for admission, classified, or conditionally classified may be obtained from the Director of the Graduate and Research Committee (Graduate Coordinator) of the Biological Sciences Department.

Program of Study

The formal program of study for the degree must include 45 units of committee-approved graduate work, at least 30 units of which must be at the 500 level. Coursework must include 32 units taken within the Biological Sciences Department at Cal Poly. A grade point average of 3.0 or better is required from the combination of all courses included in the Formal Study Plan. A maximum of 3 units of BIO 590 Seminar in Biology, and a maximum of 3 units of BIO 500 Individual Study may be used as credit towards the degree. The culminating experience is a written and publicly presented independent and novel body of research, and nine units of BIO 599 Thesis

Degree Requirements and Curriculum
 

MS Biological Sciences, Specialization in Regenerative Medicine

Characteristics. Prepares students for careers in regenerative medicine and related fields. Specifically, our graduates are prepared for immediate employment in regenerative medicine, biotechnology or medical technology companies, or as research specialists/laboratory managers at universities and research institutes. Program graduates are also well-prepared to matriculate into biological sciences doctoral programs or graduate programs in the health professions.

Culminating Experience. Students who obtain a degree in the Master of Science in Biological Sciences with a specialization in Regenerative Medicine are not required to complete the GRE Advanced Biology exam or BIO 599. In place of the thesis as a culminating experience, students are required to complete a non-traditional Comprehensive Exam. This non-traditional Comprehensive Exam includes a 9-month internship at a company or academic research laboratory (BIO 593), a quarter-long project course at Cal Poly (BIO 594), a written report and oral presentation of the internship project, and a written report and oral presentation of the final quarter-long project. Through the completion of these components, students demonstrate their ability to integrate the knowledge of the area, show critical and independent thinking, and demonstrate mastery of the subject matter.

Degree Requirements and Curriculum

How to Read Course Descriptions

BIO Courses

BIO 111. General Biology. 4 units

GE Area B2; GE Area B4

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Principles of cellular biology, heredity, ecology, biological diversity, and evolution, with emphasis on their relationships to human affairs. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology or Marine Sciences. Not open to students who have completed BIO 115 or BIO 161. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Fulfills GE B2 & B4.

BIO 112. Environmental Biology and Conservation. 4 units

GE Area B5

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

A biologically centered exploration of our planet focusing on natural resource conservation and contemporary environmental issues. Interactions between components of the biosphere and impacts of human society on interrelationships within ecosystems. Trends in natural resource conservation and biodiversity preservation. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology, or Marine Sciences. 4 lectures. Fulfills GE B5.

BIO 114. Plant Diversity and Ecology. 4 units

GE Area B2; GE Area B4

Term Typically Offered: W, SP

Plant diversity and ecology in aquatic and terrestrial plant communities including adaptations of plants to their environment. Identification of common, local native plants and plant communities, uses of native plants by Native Americans, and human impacts on native plant communities. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Fulfills GE B2 & B4.

BIO 123. Biology of Sex. 4 units

GE Area B2

Term Typically Offered: W

Fundamental principles of biology related to sexual reproduction: genetics, physiology, behavior, ecology and evolution of sex in a broad range of organisms. 4 lectures. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology, or Marine Sciences. Fulfills GE B2.

BIO 160. Diversity and History of Life. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W

Overview of the history, diversity and genetic relatedness of life on Earth; broad-scale evolutionary framework of the organization and expansion of life on Earth. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 161. Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology. 4 units

GE Area B2; GE Area B4

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Recommended: CHEM 110 or CHEM 111 or CHEM 124 or CHEM 127.

Fundamentals of cellular biology with an emphasis on the molecular perspective of life: metabolism, photosynthesis, cell structure and reproduction, meiosis, immunology, classical and molecular genetics, gene regulation. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Fulfills GE B2 & B4.

BIO 162. Introduction to Organismal Form and Function. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 161. Recommended: CHEM 110 or CHEM 111 or CHEM 124 or CHEM 127.

Fundamentals of the structure and physiology of tissues and organs of plants and animals: energy acquisition and food distribution, gas exchange and fluid transport, and sensing and responding to the environment. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 200. Special Problems for Undergraduates. 1-2 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Consent of department chair.

Individual investigation, research, studies or surveys of selected problems. Intended for lower division students in the Biological Sciences Department. Total credit limited to 12 units, with a maximum of 2 units per quarter. Credit/No Credit grading only.

BIO 202. Orientation to Biotechnology. 2 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W

Prerequisite: Completion of a course with a BIO, BOT or MCRO prefix and a course with a CHEM prefix.

Introduction to the diversity of fields in biotechnology. Applications in agriculture, nutrition, medicine and environmental problems. 1 lecture, 1 activity. Crosslisted as BIO/CHEM 202.

BIO 211. Biology of Plants and Animals. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 111; for Liberal Studies majors only. Recommended: STAT 130 or STAT 217.

Plant and animal anatomy, physiology, diversity and life cycles. How plants and animals acquire nutrients, reproduce, and adapt to environments. Emphasis on hands-on activities and model organisms suited for the elementary classroom. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology, or Marine Sciences.

BIO 213. Life Science for Engineers. 2 units

GE Area B2

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: MATH 142; for engineering students only. Corequisite: BMED/BRAE 213. Recommended: CHEM 124.

Fundamentals of life sciences: energetics, cell biology, molecular and classical genetics, microbiology, organismal biology, and ecology. 2 lectures. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology, or Marine Sciences. Fulfills GE B2.

BIO 227. Wildlife Conservation Biology. 4 units

GE Area B2

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Historical development of wildlife biology and philosophies. Basic principles of ecology and evolution. Practices applied to wildlife. Current problems involving people-wildlife interactions with special reference to world biodiversity. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology, or Marine Sciences. 4 lectures. Fulfills GE B2.

BIO 231. Human Anatomy and Physiology I. 5 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 111 or BIO 161; CHEM 110, CHEM 111, CHEM 124, CHEM 127, or PSC 102.

Structure and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, and integumentary systems. Molecular, cellular, and organ system levels of organization. Lab includes study of prosected human cadavers. Not open for major credit to Biological Sciences majors. Not open to students with credit in BIO 432 or ZOO 331. 4 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 232. Human Anatomy and Physiology II. 5 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 111 or BIO 161; CHEM 110, CHEM 111, CHEM 124, CHEM 127, or PSC 102.

Structure and function of the circulatory, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Molecular, cellular, and organ system levels of organization. Lab includes study of prosected human cadavers. Not open for major credit to Biological Sciences majors. Not open to students with credit in BIO 433 or ZOO 332. 4 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 253. Health Professions Shadowing. 1 unit

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F, SP

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Observation in a healthcare setting. Students will shadow healthcare practitioners on campus or in a community setting. Specific placement depend on practitioner availability. Total credit limited to 2 units with a maximum of 1 unit per quarter. Credit/No Credit grading only. 1 activity. Priority to BIO and MCRO majors.

BIO 263. Introductory Ecology and Evolution. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 160 or BIO 161.

Basic concepts in ecology and evolution. Relationships among organisms in populations, communities and ecosystems, structures and dynamics of populations, communities and ecosystems, ecosystem inputs and energy flows, nutrient cycling, biogeography, population genetics, evolution, patterns of biodiversity and issues in conservation biology. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 270. Selected Topics. 1-4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Directed group study of selected topics. The Schedule of Classes will list title selected. Total credit limited to 8 units. 1 to 4 lectures.

BIO 302. Human Genetics. 4 units

GE Area B5

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: ASCI 112, BIO 111, BIO 123, BIO 161, BIO 213, or BOT 121. Recommended: STAT 217 or STAT 218.

Basic principles of human inheritance, including the transmission of genetic traits, chromosomal abnormalities and their effects, gene structure and function, mutations and mutagenic agents, cancer genetics, population genetics, and principles of genetic counseling. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology, or Marine Sciences. Not open to students with credit in BIO 303 or BIO 351. 4 lectures. Fulfills GE B5.

BIO 303. Survey of Genetics. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 111 or BIO 161 or BOT 121. Recommended: STAT 218.

Principles of heredity and variation. Transmission genetics; molecular mechanisms of inheritance and gene expression. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology, or Marine Sciences. Not open to students with credit in BIO 351. Credit will be granted in only one of the following courses: BIO 302 or BIO 303. 4 lectures.

BIO 305. Biology of Cancer. 4 units

GE Area B5

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: Completion of GE Area B2.

Introduction to the causes, characteristics and treatment of human cancer. Topics include effects of carcinogens and radiation; the genetics of cancer; molecular, cellular and physiological changes in common cancers; conventional chemotherapy and new treatments. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences, Microbiology, Marine Sciences, or Biochemistry. 4 lectures. Fulfills GE B5.

BIO 308. Genetic Engineering Technology. 4 units

GE Area F

Term Typically Offered: F, W

Prerequisite: Junior standing; completion of GE Area B2, and one of the following: CHEM 110, 111, 124 or 127.

Introduction to the methodology and techniques used in genetic engineering. Applications in agriculture, nutrition, medicine and environmental problems. Potential benefits and problems, including the underlying ethical questions. Not open to students with credit in CHEM 373, or to Biological Sciences, Marine Sciences, or Microbiology majors. 4 lectures. Crosslisted as BIO/CHEM 308. Fulfills GE Area F.

BIO 321. Mammalogy. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: BIO 162 or BIO 263 or BIO 427 or ASCI 329.

Ecology, behavior, physiology, functional morphology, and evolution of mammals. Classification and identification of mammals, with emphasis on California species. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Formerly ZOO 321.

BIO 322. Ichthyology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: BIO 162.

Phylogeny, anatomy, functional morphology, physiology, and ecology of marine and freshwater fishes. Special reference to local and economically important species. Laboratory emphasis on taxonomy of California species, especially marine groups. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Formerly ZOO 322.

BIO 323. Ornithology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BIO 162 or BIO 263 or BIO 427 or ASCI 329.

Classification and identification of birds, with emphasis on California species. Functional morphology, physiology, ecology, behavior and census methods. Field trips may require meeting in the morning before scheduled lab time. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Formerly ZOO 323.

BIO 324. Herpetology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP, SU

Prerequisite: BIO 160 and BIO 162.

Living and extinct reptiles and amphibians; an adaptive approach to their diversity, biology, and classification. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Formerly ZOO 341.

BIO 327. Wildlife Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BIO 263 or NR 306. Recommended: STAT 217 or STAT 218.

Principles of ecology as applied to the study of wild vertebrates and their habitats. Emphasis on techniques for collecting and analyzing field data and how these data apply to the study and management of wildlife. Use of the literature, inventory of plants and animal populations, use of maps and databases, quantifying diet and habitat use, determining sex and age and nutritional condition, capture and marking techniques, non-invasive sampling methods. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 329. Vertebrate Field Zoology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SU

Prerequisite: Junior standing; BIO 162 or BIO 263 or BIO 427 or ASCI 329.

Identification and natural history of terrestrial vertebrates, with emphasis on field studies and local species. Field trips may require meeting in the morning before scheduled lab time. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Formerly ZOO 329.

BIO 330. Extended Field Biology Activity. 1-3 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SU

Corequisite: Enrollment in corresponding field biology course.

Minimum of two days of field instruction in places with significant biological diversity, and an individual or group project. Focus on field notebooks, field identification, survey methods, experimental design, and significant habitat types for various groups of organisms. The Schedule of Classes will list the title of the associated field biology course. Total credit limited to 6 units, each associated with a different field biology course, with no more than 4 units applied as advisor approved electives. Field trip required. 1-3 activities.

BIO 335. General Entomology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: AEPS 313, BIO 160, or BIO 211. Recommended: BIO 162.

Introduction to the study of insects. Structure, major orders and families of insects, life histories, medical, and economic importance. Insect collection required. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Formerly ZOO 335.

BIO 336. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 160 and BIO 162.

Invertebrate groups of animals with emphasis on taxonomy, morphology, distribution, and economic importance. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories, and fieldwork. Formerly ZOO 336.

BIO 351. Principles of Genetics. 5 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: BIO 161; CHEM 216, CHEM 312, or CHEM 316. Recommended: BIO 263; STAT 217 or STAT 218.

Principles of genetics and genetic analysis, including underlying molecular mechanisms. Subjects include gene structure and function, inheritance patterns, regulation of gene expression, mutation, recombination, recombinant DNA technology, and an introduction to population genetics. 5 lectures.

BIO 361. Principles of Animal Physiology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 162; and CHEM 216, CHEM 312 or CHEM 316.

Fundamental principles of animal physiology, including cellular mechanisms and integration to whole animals. Membrane transport, fluid/salt balance, excitable cells, metabolic rate, temperature, gas exchange and circulation. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 400. Special Problems for Advanced Undergraduates. 1-2 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Individual investigation, research, studies, or surveys of selected problems. Total major credit limited to 6 units, with a maximum of 2 units per quarter. Total credit limited to 12 units.

BIO 401. Principles of Conservation Biology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W

Prerequisite: BIO 263 or NR 306, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Foundational concepts in the conservation of wild organisms and their habitats. Quantification and valuation of biological diversity, current threats to diversity, and approaches to better understand and address these threats, across terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments. 4 lectures.

BIO 405. Developmental Biology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BIO 161, BIO 162, and BIO 303 or BIO 351 or CHEM 373.

Events and mechanisms of embryonic development, including fertilization, morphogenesis, cell differentiation, and organogenesis, with emphasis on differential gene expression in model organisms. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 406. Advanced Anatomy and Physiology: Neuroscience. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 361; CHEM 331 or STAT 218; PHYS 123 or PHYS 133; or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Anatomy and physiology of nervous systems including electrophysiology, molecular and cellular mechanisms of neurotransmission, interactions between the nervous system and other body systems, and comparative anatomy of vertebrate nervous systems, especially humans. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 407. Advanced Anatomy and Physiology: Endocrinology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 361; CHEM 331 or STAT 218; or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system and hormones, with an emphasis on humans and other vertebrates. 4 lectures.

BIO 408. Advanced Anatomy and Physiology: Cardiorespiratory and Renal. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W

Prerequisite: BIO 361; CHEM 331 or STAT 218; or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems, with an emphasis on humans and other vertebrates. Discussion of health and disease states and responses to exercise and environmental factors. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 409. Advanced Anatomy and Physiology: Muscle and Locomotion. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 361; CHEM 331 or STAT 218; PHYS 121 or PHYS 141; or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Anatomy and physiology of musculoskeletal systems, including energetics and biomechanics of locomotion. Discussion of invertebrates and vertebrates with emphasis on humans. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 410. Functional Histology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: ASCI 229 or BIO 231 or BIO 232 or BIO 361 or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Functional microscopic anatomy of principal tissues and organs of vertebrates, including humans. Structural studies to determine mechanisms underlying physiological processes and their clinical applications in medicine. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories.

BIO 414. Evolution. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: BIO 263; and BIO 303 or BIO 351. Recommended: BIO 327 or BOT 326 or MSCI 328.

Scientific evaluation of the theories, mechanism, and patterns of biological evolution. 4 lectures.

BIO 415. Biogeography. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: BIO 263, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Plant and animal distribution patterns in relation to past and present physical and biotic factors; survey of major biomes with major emphasis on North and South America. 4 lectures.

BIO 419. Analytical Methods in Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: STAT 218 or graduate standing in Biological Sciences. Recommended: one of the following: BIO 263, BIO 327, BOT 326, MSCI 328 or NR 306.

Introduction to quantitative methods used in ecology with an emphasis on the design and analysis of field studies. Population estimates, sampling design and analysis, and the determination of community structure. 3 seminars, 1 activity.

BIO 421. Wetlands. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: BOT 121 or BIO 162, CHEM 111 or CHEM 127, and SS 121 or SS 131. Recommended: one of the following: BIO 327, BOT 313, BOT 326, MSCI 328 or NR 306.

The formation, characteristics, and functions of wetlands. Genesis of hydric soils. Plant adaptations to saturated soils. Wetlands as wildlife habitat. Policies and social issues associated with wetlands. The procedures of wetland delineations. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Crosslisted as BIO/NR/SS 421.

BIO 424. Organizing and Teaching Science. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Admission to the Single Subject Credential Program.

Techniques, aims and objectives in the teaching of physical and life sciences at the secondary level. Selection and organization of teaching material, including strategies for English language learners (ELL) and special needs students. Evaluation of results. 3 lectures, 1 activity. Crosslisted as BIO/PSC 424.

BIO 425. Clinical Experience in Teaching Science Seminar. 2 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: W, SP

Prerequisite: Acceptance into the Single Subject Credential Program in Science. Concurrent: EDUC 469 or EDUC 479.

Principles and practices in effective teaching of science at the middle and high school level, learning theories, curriculum content and structure, classroom issues, and the teaching profession. Credit/No Credit grading only. Total credit limited to 4 units. 2 seminars. Crosslisted as BIO/PSC 425.

BIO 426. Immunology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 351 or CHEM 373. Recommended: CHEM 313 or CHEM 371.

Principles of molecular and cellular immunology. Emphasis on molecular regulation of immune cell development, including generation of unique receptors, lymphocyte signal transduction and selection, programmed cell death and regulation of immune responses. Discussion and demonstration of roles of immunology in disease and as diagnostic tools. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 427. Wildlife Management. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W

Prerequisite: One of the following upper-division ecology courses: BIO 327, BIO 401, BIO 444, BOT 326, MSCI 328, or NR 306, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Important habitats, such as riparian, wetlands, and habitat features important to wildlife, such as vegetation types and snags. Basic concepts of wildlife management. Emphasis on planning and designing habitats to meet the needs of wildlife. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 428. Hematology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W, SU

Prerequisite: BIO 351 or BIO 302 or BIO 303 or CHEM 373, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences. Recommended: BIO 361 or ZOO 332 or BMED 460; CHEM 313 or CHEM 371.

Development and function of blood as a tissue. Composition, function, and mechanisms of formation and destruction of blood components in health and disease. Methods for examination of blood. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Formerly ZOO 428.

BIO 429. Parasitology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: BIO 160 and BIO 161, or MCRO 221, or MCRO 224, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

External and internal parasites of man and animals. Life history. Parasite-host relationships. Control and recognition of species of clinical importance. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Formerly ZOO 425.

BIO 434. Environmental Physiology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: BIO 162, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences. Recommended: BIO 263.

Comparative physiological mechanisms involved in the regulation of oxygen uptake, water and ion balance, and temperature regulation in animals. Emphasis is placed on physiological adaptations which maintain or restore homeostasis in animals which are subjected to environmental changes. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 435. Plant Physiology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BOT 121 or BIO 162. Recommended: BIO 161 or BIO 303; CHEM 312 or CHEM 216.

Consideration of the principal physiological and biochemical processes of plants with emphasis on water relations, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, and the physiology of plant development. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 441. Bioinformatics Applications. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, SP

Prerequisite: Junior standing; BIO 161 or BIO 303. Recommended: BIO 302 or BIO 303 or BIO 351 or CHEM 373.

Introduction to new problems in molecular biology and current computer applications for genetic database analyses. Use of software for: nucleic acid, genome and protein sequence analysis; genetic databases, database tools; industrial applications in bioinformatics; ethical and societal concerns. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Crosslisted as BIO/CHEM 441.

BIO 442. Behavioral Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BIO 263, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Behavioral adaptations of animals to their environment and way of life. Analysis of behavior patterns, use of patterns in clarifying evolutionary and ecological relationships. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 444. Population Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: BIO 263 or NR 306.

Growth, fluctuations, balance, and natural mechanisms controlling wild populations, and methods for assessing their interconnectedness. Field trip may be required. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 445. Community Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 160, BIO 162, BIO 263, and STAT 218 or Graduate standing in Biological Sciences. Recommended: BIO 327, BIO 401, BOT 326, or MSCI 328.

Principles of ecology at the community level including the mechanism that structure ecological communities, and the quantitative methods used to study community ecology such as diversity metrics, community composition analyses, interaction strengths and the application of statistics to field and experimental studies. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 446. Ecosystem Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 263, BOT 326, or NR 306; and STAT 218, or Graduate standing in Biological Sciences. Recommended: BIO 327, BIO 401, MSCI 328 or SS 121.

Advanced ecosystem ecology and biology, and the interactions of biological communities with the abiotic environment. Emphasis on climate change, ecosystem services, and major fluxes and pools of organic elements. 4 lectures.

BIO 450. Undergraduate Laboratory Assistantship. 1-4 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and department chair.

Assisting the instructor in teaching and supervising undergraduate laboratories in the Biological Sciences Department. Total credit limited to 8 units, with a maximum of 4 units per quarter. Credit/No Credit grading only.

BIO 452. Cell Biology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 351 or CHEM 373; and CHEM 216, CHEM 312 or CHEM 316. Recommended: CHEM 313 or CHEM 371.

Introduction to cell structure and function, energy conversions, protein sorting, signaling, cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 461. Senior Project - Research Proposal. 2 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: fulfillment of GWR, STAT 218, and junior standing.

Completion of a research proposal and literature review, including analysis of experimental results from published peer-reviewed articles in biology. Written and oral presentations. 2 activities.

BIO 462. Senior Project - Research. 2 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: fulfillment of GWR, STAT 218, junior standing, and consent of instructor. Recommended: BIO 400.

Completion of a research project or equivalent in the biological sciences, selected and conducted in consultation with an instructor. Results are presented in written reports.

BIO 463. Honors Research. 2 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: BIO 462 and consent of instructor.

Completion of advanced research in the biological sciences, selected and conducted in consultation with an instructor. Results presented as a written report and/or oral presentation in a public forum.

BIO 470. Selected Advanced Topics. 1-4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Directed group study of selected topics for advanced students. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. Class Schedule will list topic selected. Total credit limited to 8 units. 1 to 4 lectures.

BIO 471. Selected Advanced Laboratory. 1-4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

Directed group laboratory study of selected topics for advanced students. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. Class Schedule will list topics selected. Total credit limited to 8 units. 1 to 4 laboratories.

BIO 472. Current Topics in Biological Research. 1-4 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Junior standing.

Applications of biological research topics. Discussions of how selected discoveries in biological research formed the basis for, and were developed into, practical applications, currently accepted theories, generally utilized techniques or decisions affecting society and political policies The Schedule of Classes will list topic selected. Total credit limited to 8 units. 1-4 seminars.

BIO 475. Molecular Biology Laboratory. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 161, and grade of C- or better in BIO 351 or CHEM 373 or consent of instructor.

Introduction to techniques used in molecular biology and biotechnology; DNA extraction, characterization, cloning, Southern blotting, reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing analysis. 1 lecture, 2 laboratories. Crosslisted as BIO/CHEM 475.

BIO 476. Gene Expression Laboratory. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BIO/CHEM 475; CHEM 313 or CHEM 371, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Heterologous gene expression of a recombinant protein in a microbial system: gene cloning, construction of expression plasmid, DNA sequence analysis, transformation of microbial host, selection and analysis of transformed host cells, expression and purification of recombinant protein. 1 lecture, 2 laboratories. Crosslisted as BIO/CHEM 476.

BIO 485. Cooperative Education Experience. 6 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and consent of instructor.

Part-time work experience in business, industry, government, and other areas of student career interest. Positions are paid and usually require relocation and registration in course for two consecutive quarters. Formal report and evaluation by work supervisor required. Major credit limited to 4 units; total credit limited to 12 units. Credit/No Credit grading only.

BIO 495. Cooperative Education Experience. 12 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and consent of instructor.

Full-time work experience in business, industry, government, and other areas of student career interest. Positions are paid and usually require relocation and registration in course for two consecutive quarters. Formal report and evaluation by work supervisor required. Major credit limited to 4 units; total credit limited to 12 units. Credit/No Credit grading only.

BIO 500. Individual Study. 1-4 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences and consent of instructor.

Advanced study planned and completed with the approval of and under the direction of a member of the department faculty. A written scholarly presentation of the results of each BIO 500 project must be included in the graduate student's departmental file. Total degree credit limited to 3 units. Total credit limited to 12 units.

BIO 501. Molecular & Cellular Biology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences or consent of instructor.

Principles of molecular and cellular biology including gene function and regulation, energetics, protein trafficking, cytoskeleton, signaling, adhesion, and the cell cycle. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 502. Biology of Organisms. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 501 and graduate standing in Biological Sciences, or consent of instructor.

Principles of and current topics in organismal biology, with an emphasis on physiology (including organ systems), behavior, and responses to the environment. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 503. Population Biology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences or consent of instructor.

Considerations of theory and practice in population ecology, evolutionary biology, and biosystematics. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BIO 509. Communicating Biology to General Audiences. 1 unit

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Key issues for scientists communicating with the general public. Introduction to principles, examination of case studies, and practical application in outreach projects. Intended for graduate students in biology and related disciplines. 1 activity.

BIO 524. Developmental Biology Seminar. 2 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences or consent of instructor. Recommended: BIO 501.

Principles and selected topics in developmental biology. Issues of differentiation, morphogenesis, and pattern formation; specific topics chosen by participants. 2 seminars.

BIO 534. Principles of Stem Cell Biology. 2 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, or Agriculture, or consent of instructor. Recommended: BIO 452 or BIO 501.

Principles of stem cell biology including characteristics, types, roles in development, therapeutic uses, historical perspectives and ethical issues. 2 seminars.

BIO 537. Advanced Behavioral Ecology. 1 unit

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: BIO 442, or graduate standing.

Function and evolution of behavioral traits as they relate to ecological phenomena. Habitat selection, migration, spacing mechanisms, reproductive strategies, feeding strategies, agonistic, parasitic, altruistic behavior, communication, and comparative social systems. 1 activity.

BIO 561. Proposal Writing for Biological Research. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences or consent of instructor.

Written and oral presentations of a proposal for research in biology including a literature review. 3 seminars.

BIO 570. Selected Topics in Biology. 1-4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences or consent of instructor.

Directed group study of selected topics for graduate students. Class Schedule will list topics for selection. Total credit limited to 12 units. 1 to 4 seminars.

BIO 571. Selected Advanced Laboratory. 1-4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor.

Directed group laboratory study of selected topics for advanced students. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. The Schedule of Classes will list title selected. Total credit limited to 8 units. 1-4 laboratories.

BIO 574. Teaching Strategies for College Biology Laboratories. 1 unit

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Concepts of teaching and learning related to instructor performance in college biology laboratory classes. Introduction to teaching strategies, managing a classroom, writing exam questions, and science education research for the laboratory class setting. Credit/No Credit grading only. 1 activity.

BIO 575. College Biology Teaching Practicum. 1-2 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: Graduate standing and evidence of satisfactory preparation in biology; Department chair and graduate coordinator's approval required.

Part-time teaching assignment in an undergraduate college classroom. Includes teaching and related activities under the supervision of a professor in Biological Science. Total credit limited to 2 units. Credit/No Credit grading only. 1-2 activities.

BIO 585. Cooperative Education Experience. 6 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences and consent of instructor.

Advanced study, analysis and part-time work experience in student's career field; current innovations, practices, and problems in administration, supervision, and organization of business, industry, and government. Must have demonstrated ability to do independent work and research in career field. Total credit limited to 6 units. Credit/No Credit grading only.

BIO 590. Seminar in Biology. 1 unit

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences or consent of instructor.

Problems and topics in advanced biology selected according to the interest and needs of the students enrolled. Total credit limited to 6 units. 1 activity.

BIO 591. Trends in Biology. 1 unit

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Recent trends in the field of biology for graduate students in the Biological Sciences master's degree program. Overview of current research with presentations from visiting scholars and Cal Poly faculty. Total credit limited to 3 units. 1 activity.

BIO 593. Regenerative Medicine Internship. 3-5 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in the Specialization in Regenerative Medicine for the MS in Biological Sciences, or the MS in Biomedical Engineering, or the Animal Science Specialization in the MS in Agriculture.

Supervised graduate research and/or development in stem cell science or regenerative medicine and engineering. Provides students with an off-campus industrial or university internship. Total credit limited to 10 units. Crosslisted as ASCI/BIO/BMED 593.

BIO 594. Applications in Regenerative Medicine. 2 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in the Specialization in Regenerative Medicine for the MS in Biological Sciences, or the MS in Biomedical Engineering, or the Animal Science Specialization in the MS in Agriculture.

Transfer of skills and knowledge gained through coursework, in an applied setting at Cal Poly. Demonstration of technical, problem solving, and presentation skills, and familiarity with current research. Part of the culminating experience for the Specialization in Regenerative Medicine in the MS in Biological Sciences, or the MS in Biomedical Engineering, or the Animal Science Specialization in the MS in Agriculture. 1 seminar and supervised work. Crosslisted as ASCI/BIO/BMED 594.

BIO 595. Cooperative Education Experience. 12 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences and consent of instructor.

Advanced study, analysis and full-time work experience in student's career field; current innovations, practices, and problems in administration, supervision, and organization of business, industry, and government. Must have demonstrated ability to do independent work and research in career field. Total credit limited to 12 units. Credit/No Credit grading only.

BIO 599. Thesis. 1-3 units

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biological Sciences and consent of instructor.

Individual research under the general supervision of the faculty, leading to a graduate thesis of suitable quality. Total credit limited to 9 units.

BOT Courses

BOT 121. General Botany. 4 units

GE Area B2; GE Area B4

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

The anatomy, physiology, reproduction, and importance of plants. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Fulfills GE B2 & B4.

BOT 311. Plants, People and Civilization. 4 units

GE Area B5

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: One course from GE Area B2.

Human uses of plants for food, beverage, medicine, fiber, recreation, and rituals. Uses of plants by different cultures throughout the world and the social, economical, and environmental importance of plants in our lives. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Fulfills GE B5.

BOT 313. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 114 or BIO 162 or BOT 121.

Introduction to classification and identification of vascular plants, emphasizing major plant families; field and herbarium techniques. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories.

BOT 323. Plant Pathology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 162 or BOT 121.

Comprehensive study of the causes and effects of disease in plants. Designed to lead to an understanding of the science and modern control methods. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories. Crosslisted as AEPS/BOT 323.

BOT 326. Plant Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 114, BIO 162, BIO 211, or BOT 121. Recommended: BIO 263 and STAT 217 or STAT 218.

Plant communities, population dynamics, and effects of the following environmental factors on plant growth and development: soil, water, temperature, light, atmosphere, topography, organisms, and fire. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

BOT 329. Plants, Food, and Biotechnology. 4 units

GE Area F

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: Junior standing and completion of one of the following: AEPS 120, BIO 111, BIO 114, BIO 161, or BOT 121.

Agriculture as applied biology and its impact on civilization. Application of technology to increase the efficiency of food production. Genetics and biotechnology; culminating in an assessment of genetically engineered foods, the myths, the controversy, the science. Not open to Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences majors. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Crosslisted as AEPS/BOT 329. Fulfills GE Area F.

BOT 433. Field Botany: California Plant Diversity. 5 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BOT 313, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Field studies of California's diverse vegetation. Identification of plants and plant communities in the field. Factors affecting distribution and ecological relationships. California geography, geology, and evolution of California flora. Several one day field trips and three weekend trips to California's deserts and mountains. Field trips required. 3 lectures, 2 laboratories.

MCRO Courses

MCRO 100. Introduction to Microbiology Research. 2 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BIO 161.

Group research experience in microbiology through participation in a faculty-student research project. Foundations of the scientific method including literature review, design of experiments, common laboratory techniques, data analysis, interpretation of results and scientific communication. Intended for freshmen and sophomores with no research experience. Priority to MCRO majors. Credit/No Credit grading only. 1 seminar, 1 laboratory.

MCRO 221. Microbiology. 4 units

GE Area B2; GE Area B4

Term Typically Offered: F,W,SP,SU

Prerequisite: CHEM 110 or CHEM 111 or CHEM 124 or CHEM 127 or PSC 102.

Morphology, metabolism, classification, and identification; microbiology of air, soil, water, and foods with applications to industry, agriculture, medicine, and public health. Not open to students with credit in MCRO 224; not open for major credit for BIO/MCRO/MSCI. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Fulfills GE B2 & B4.

MCRO 224. General Microbiology I. 5 units

GE Area B2; GE Area B4

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: BIO 161 and CHEM 111, CHEM 124 or CHEM 127. Recommended: CHEM 128.

Microbial cellular structure and function, nutrition and growth dynamics, control of microbial growth, metabolism, genetics, and viruses. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms emphasized. 3 lectures, 2 laboratories. Fulfills GE B2 & B4.

MCRO 225. General Microbiology II. 5 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: MCRO 224.

Microbial diversity, systematics, ecology, and symbiotic relationships. Introduction to host-microorganism interactions including pathogenesis, epidemiology, and immunology. 3 lectures, 2 laboratories.

MCRO 301. Wine Microbiology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: MCRO majors must have MCRO 224; WVIT majors must have MCRO 221 or MCRO 224; and WVIT 202; open to MCRO or WVIT majors only.

Wine yeasts, bacteria, and molds: morphology and methods of identification; successful alcoholic and malolactic fermentations; management and prevention of unwanted microbial growth; micro-organisms and flavor development. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory. Crosslisted as MCRO/WVIT 301.

MCRO 320. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: W, SU

Prerequisite: BIO 161; and MCRO 221 or MCRO 224.

Recent outbreaks of human diseases, interrelationships between infectious disease agents, human biology, and the environment. Infectious agents and disease processes, virulence mechanisms, and host immune response. Clinical approaches and surveillance methods to detect, investigate, and monitor emerging pathogens. Factors involved in the accelerating emergence of diseases and bioterrorist agents. 3 lectures.

MCRO 342. Public Health Microbiology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: MCRO 221 or MCRO 224.

Principles of disease prevention and control. Water-, food-, and air-borne microbial contaminations and epidemiology of ensuing diseases. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

MCRO 402. General Virology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 351 or CHEM 373, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences. Recommended: BIO 452.

Infective macromolecules (prions, viroids, and viruses) associated with microbes, plants, and animals. Epidemiology, immune responses, pathogenicity, carcinogenesis, diagnoses, vaccination, and therapy. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

MCRO 421. Food Microbiology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: MCRO 221 or MCRO 224. Recommended: CHEM 212/312.

Physiological activities of microorganisms involved in the preparation, preservation, deterioration, and toxicity of foods and related products. Detection and prevention of spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

MCRO 423. Medical Microbiology. 5 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: Junior standing; MCRO 225; and CHEM 216, CHEM 312 or CHEM 316; and consent of instructor.

Microorganisms as agents of disease in humans. Epidemiology, host-parasite relationships, and chemotherapy. The compromised host and opportunistic disease. Laboratory safety. Procedures for laboratory diagnosis of human diseases. Rapid miniaturized methods of identification. 3 lectures, 2 laboratories.

MCRO 424. Microbial Physiology. 5 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: MCRO 225 and CHEM 313 or CHEM 371, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Cellular structure and life processes of bacteria; chemical composition, growth, and metabolism. General biological and evolutionary considerations. 3 lectures, 2 laboratories.

MCRO 433. Microbial Biotechnology. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: MCRO 221 or MCRO 224; and BIO 303 or BIO 351 or equivalent; and CHEM 216, CHEM 312 or CHEM 316 or equivalent, or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Principles and methods used for production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and food additives using micro-organisms. Topics include screening and strain improvement, regulation of metabolite production, genetic engineering, heterologous gene expression systems, large-scale production, and intellectual property. 3 lectures.

MCRO 436. Microbial Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BIO 160; BIO 161; BIO 263; and MCRO 221 or MCRO 224; or graduate standing in Biological Sciences.

Ecology and interactions of microorganisms in natural environments. Role of microorganisms in ecosystem function such as nutrient cycling, extreme environments, symbioses. Applications of microorganisms in the environment such as bioremediation, biocontrol, biofuels. Field trip may be required. 2 lectures, 2 activities.

MSCI Courses

MSCI 100. Introduction to Marine Sciences. 1 unit

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: Marine Sciences major.

Introduction to Marine Sciences faculty, the Biology Department and campus resources, research opportunities, possible careers, studying science, and current topics in marine sciences. Credit/No credit grading only. 1 lecture.

MSCI 301. Biological Oceanography. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisites: BIO 160, BIO 161, BIO 263, PSC 201, CHEM 129, and STAT 218.

Interdisciplinary study of marine organisms, how they interact with each other and their physical, chemical and geological environment. Emphasis on how these interactions impact abundance, diversity and temporal and spatial distributions. 3 lectures.

MSCI 303. Ocean Sampling Techniques. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisites: CHEM 302, MSCI 301, and STAT 218.

Introduction to techniques in oceanography and marine sciences. Hands-on technical training in sampling, measuring, tagging and tracking of bathymetry and geography; waves, tides and currents; salinity, temperature and pressure; dissolved oxygen and pH; irradiance and light scattering; phytoplankton and zooplankton; and benthic fauna and marine macrofauna. 1 lecture, 2 labs.

MSCI 307. World Aquaculture: Applications, Methodologies and Trends. 4 units

GE Area F

Term Typically Offered: F, SP

Prerequisite: Junior standing and completion of GE Area B, including a GE B2 course in biology with a BIO, BOT, or MCRO, or ZOO prefix.

Life histories and habitats of important species of fishes, invertebrates and algae. Methodologies for the commercial propagation of specific forms. Global and regional coverage, including socioeconomic trends, controversies and applications in developed and less developed regions of the world. Not open for major credit in Biological Sciences. 3 lectures, 1 activity. Fulfills GE Area F.

MSCI 324. Marine Mammals, Birds and Reptiles. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: BIO 162; BIO 263; and STAT 218.

Introduction to the biology, ecology and evolution of mammals, reptiles and birds of the marine environment, with an emphasis on Central California species, diversity patterns, evolutionary relationships, adaptations to the ocean, and conservation issues. Field trips required. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories.

MSCI 328. Marine Ecology. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 160, BIO 162, and BIO 263. Recommended: STAT 218.

Introduction to the functional biology of marine plants and animals and the ecological processes that underlie their distribution and abundance in open oceans, coastal regions, and estuaries. Field trips required. 2 lectures, 2 laboratories.

MSCI 330. Technologies for Ocean Discovery. 4 units

GE Area F

Term Typically Offered: F, SP

Prerequisite: Junior standing and completion of GE Area B.

Survey of ocean sensor systems, sensor platforms, and other emerging technologies that provide new understanding of the ocean, current issues in marine science, and the social context and societal implications of discoveries in ocean sciences. Course projects could include presentations, data analysis, and hands-on design of sensors. Field trip required. 3 lectures, 1 activity. Fulfills GE Area F.

MSCI 401. Marine Science Outreach. 1-2 units

CR/NC

Term Typically Offered: F, W, SP

Prerequisite: PSC 201 or MSCI 301 or MSCI 328; Junior standing and consent of instructor.

Volunteer or internship experience in a marine science business, industry, government agency or informal science center. Positions require communicating science to the public. Formal report and evaluation by work supervisor required. Major credit limited to 4 units. Total credit limited to 8 units. Credit/No credit grading only.

MSCI 410. Scientific Diving. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: SU

Prerequisites: BIO 263, open water diving certificate, and instructor consent. Recommended: MSCI 301 or MSCI 328.

Advanced training in scientific methods associated with practical training in scuba diving. Satisfies American Academy of Underwater Sciences standards. Combination of theory, techniques and scuba diving. Experience collecting data and handling scientific equipment underwater. AAUS certification will require additional assessments outside of class. Field trips and additional fee required. 1 lecture, 2 labs.

MSCI 428. Marine Conservation and Policy. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: W

Prerequisite: BIO 160 and BIO 263; BIO 327 or BIO 401 or BOT 326 or MSCI 328, or Graduate standing in Biological Sciences. Recommended: PSC 201.

Examination of how science and policy are used to evaluate and implement marine conservation and resource management. Topics include endangered species, fisheries, climate change, marine protected areas, research and conservation topics and developing policy for management decision-making. Field trip required. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

MSCI 437. Marine Botany. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: Junior standing and BIO 162.

Comprehensive examination of the ecology, life histories, functional morphology, physiology, and taxonomy of marine algae and marine plants. Laboratory emphasizes species endemic to the central coast of California. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

MSCI 438. Aquaculture. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: TBD

Prerequisite: BIO 160, BIO 162, and BIO 263.

Propagation and rearing of fishes, invertebrates and algae from marine, freshwater, and estuarine habitats. Current methodologies and general life histories. Global perspective including aquacultural development in developed and developing countries. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

MSCI 439. Fisheries Science and Resource Management. 4 units

Term Typically Offered: SP

Prerequisite: BIO 162. Recommended: ZOO 322.

Scientific investigation of marine and freshwater fisheries. Methodologies and quantitative strategies for study of finfish and invertebrates. Role of oceanographic or limnological processes on stock maintenance. Impact of human exploitation on maintenance of sustainable yields, including user-group conflict issues, and regional/global controversies. Lab/field protocols, basic fisheries statistical procedures, molecular methods, computer simulations. 3 lectures, 1 laboratory.

MSCI 440. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences. 3 units

Term Typically Offered: F

Prerequisite: MSCI 328, PSC 201, ZOO 322, or ZOO 336; completion of GE A; and GE Area B2 or BIO 211; Junior standing.

Simultaneous focus on developing a knowledge of ocean sciences and the advanced educational approaches for communicating that knowledge. Teaching skills developed through coursework, outreach events and design of collaborative projects at museums and aquariums. Primary objective is to learn how to present ocean-themed hands-on, inquiry-based science exhibits, in order to improve the scientific literacy of audiences of all ages. Field trip required. 1 lecture, 2 activities.

Nikki L. Adams
B.A., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1988; M.S., University of Maine, 1995; Ph.D., 2000.

Michael W. Black
B.S., Southwest Missouri State, 1993; Ph.D., Stanford University, 1999.

Jason M. Blank
B.S., Duke University, 1996; Ph.D., Stanford University, 2006.

Sandra L. Clement
B.S., Doane College, 1995; Ph.D., Michigan State University, 2004.

Pantelis M. Fidopiastis
B.A., California State University, Fullerton, 1992; M.A., 1995; Ph.D., University of Hawaii, Manoa, 2001.

Clinton D. Francis
B.S., Pacific University, 2002; M.A., University of Colorado 2007; Ph.D., 2010.

Kristina Hardy
B.S., Tulane University, 2003; Ph.D., University of North Carolina Wilmington, 2009.

Kenneth J. Hillers
B.S., Western Washington University, 1980; Ph.D., University of Oregon, 1998.

Edward T. Himelblau
B.S., University of California San Diego, 1992; Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 2000.

Elena L. Keeling
B.S., Yale University, 1989; Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco, 1996.

Christopher L. Kitts
B.Sc., University of Auckland, New Zealand, 1984; Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz, 1992.

Charles A. Knight
B.S., Western Washington University, 1996; Ph.D., Stanford University, 2002.

Gita R. Kolluru
B.Sc., Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada, 1991; M.A., University of California, Riverside, 1994; Ph.D., 1999.

Sean C. Lema
B.S., University of California, Davis, 1999; M.S., 2001; Ph.D., 2004.

Nathaniel W. Martinez
B.S., University of California, Santa Cruz, 2002; Ph.D. Cornell University, 2010; M.D., 2012.

Royden Nakamura
B.A., University of Hawaii, 1961; M.S., 1965; Ph.D., University of British Columbia, 1970.

John D. Perrine
B.S., Vanderbilt University, 1991; M.S., Miami University, Ohio, 1995; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 2005.

Matthew K. Ritter
B.S., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1996; Ph.D., University of California, San Diego, 2002.

Benjamin I. Ruttenberg
B.A., Tufts University, 1994; M.S., Yale University, 1999; Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2006.

Christy Strand
B.A., Concordia University 1992; Ph.D., Arizona State University, 2007.

Emily N. Taylor
B.A., University of California, Berkeley, 1998; Ph.D., Arizona State University, 2005.

Lars Tomanek
B.S., University of Konstanz, Germany, 1995; M.S., 1995; Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1999.

Francis X. Villablanca
B.S., California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 1987; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1993.

Larisa K. Vredevoe
B.S., University of California, Davis, 1992; Ph.D., 1998.

Crow White
B.A., University of Oregon, 1997; M.S., University of Montana, 2002; Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2008.

Candace R. Winstead
B.A., Augustana College, 1991; Ph.D., Loyola University, 1999.

Alejandra Yep
B.S./M.S., University of Buenos Aires, 1999; Ph.D., 2004.

Po Sai Marie Yeung
B.Sc., The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1995; M.S., California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 2001; Ph.D., Cornell University, 2004.

Jennifer M. Yost
B.S., California Polytechnic State University, 2005; M.S., 2007; Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz.